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Title: Impact of chronic use of antimalarials on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases : protocol for a multicentric observational cohort study
Authors: Gomides, Ana
Ferreira, Gilda
Kakehasi, Adriana
Lacerda, Marcus
Marques, Cláudia
Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da
Paiva, Eduardo
Pileggi, Gecilmara
Provenza, José
Reis-Neto, Edgar
Sampaio, Vanderson
Xavier, Ricardo
Pinheiro, Marcelo
Assunto:: Covid-19
Sistema imunológico
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Publisher: JMIR Publications
Citation: GOMIDES, Ana et al. Impact of chronic use of antimalarials on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases: protocol for a multicentric observational cohort study. JMIR Research Protocols, v. 9, n. 10, e23532, out. 2020. DOI: Disponível em: Acesso em: 28 abr. 2021.
Abstract: Background: COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has brought extensive challenges to the scientific community in recent months. Several studies have been undertaken in an attempt to minimize the impact of the disease worldwide. Although new knowledge has been quickly disseminated, including viral mechanisms, pathophysiology, and clinical findings, there is a lack of information on the effective pharmacological management of this disease. In vitro studies have shown some benefits related to the use of antimalarials (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. However, the data from open clinical trials on COVID-19 patients are controversial. Objective: We present the protocol for a research project that compares the potential protective effect of antimalarials in preventing moderate-to-severe forms of COVID-19 in two groups: (1) patients treated chronically with antimalarials for rheumatic diseases and (2) other members of the patients’ household who have not been diagnosed with rheumatic diseases and are not taking antimalarials. Methods: This is a 24-week, prospective, observational cohort study comprising patients from public and private health services across Brazil, who chronically use antimalarials for the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis, or chikungunya-related arthropathy. A total of six sequential phone interviews were scheduled during the COVID-19 outbreak in five different regions of Brazil. Information regarding social, epidemiological, and demographic data, as well as details about rheumatic diseases, antimalarials, comorbidities, and concomitant medication, is being recorded using a specific online form in the REDCap database. Symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, including fever, cough, dyspnea, anosmia, and dysgeusia, are being self-reported and collected via phone interviews. Our main outcomes are hospitalization, need of intensive care unit, and death. Results: Recruitment began at the end of March 2020, and the inclusion was done during an 8-week period (from March 29 to May 17) with a total of 10,443 individuals enrolled at baseline, 5166 of whom have rheumatic diseases, from 23 tertiary rheumatology centers across 97 Brazilian cities. Data analysis is scheduled to begin after all inclusion data have been collected. Conclusions: This study, which includes a large sample of chronic antimalarial users, will allow us to explore whether SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases and long-term antimalarial usage.
Licença:: ©Ana Gomides, Gilda Ferreira, Adriana Kakehasi, Marcus Lacerda, Cláudia Marques, Licia Mota, Eduardo Paiva, Gecilmara Pileggi, José Provenza, Edgard Reis-Neto, Vanderson Sampaio, Ricardo Xavier, Marcelo Pinheiro. Originalmente publicado em JMIR Research Protocols (, 14.10.2020 - (CC BY) - This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
Appears in Collections:FMD - Artigos publicados em periódicos e preprints
UnB - Covid-19

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