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dc.contributor.authorTeixeira, Marcus de Melo-
dc.contributor.authorTheodoro, Raquel Cordeiro-
dc.contributor.authorNino Vega, Gustavo-
dc.contributor.authorBagagli, Eduardo-
dc.contributor.authorFelipe, Maria Sueli Soares-
dc.identifier.citationTEIXEIRA, Marcus de Melo et al. Paracoccidioides species complex: ecology, phylogeny, sexual reproduction, and virulence. Plos Pathogens, v. 10, n. 10, Article e1004397, 30 out. 2014. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 12 jun. 2017. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004397.pt_BR
dc.publisherPlos Onept_BR
dc.rightsAcesso Abertopt_BR
dc.titleParacoccidioides species complex : ecology, phylogeny, sexual reproduction, and virulencept_BR
dc.subject.keywordMicoses sistêmicaspt_BR
dc.subject.keywordVirulência (Microbiologia)pt_BR
dc.rights.licenseCopyright: © 2014 Teixeira et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.pt_BR
dc.description.abstract1Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a deep systemic mycosis caused by human fungal pathogens of the Paracoccidioides genus. The disease is geographically restricted to subtropical areas of Latin America (from south of Mexico to north of Argentina) with a high prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, and Argentina [1]. The annual incidence rate in Brazil is 10–30 infections per million inhabitants, and the mean mortality rate is 1.4 per million inhabitants per year, making this disease the highest cause of mortality among systemic mycoses [2]. PCM is endemic in rural populations and mainly affects individuals engaged in agricultural activities, who inhale aerosols containing fungal material during manipulation of the soil. Molecular evolutionary studies place the genus Paracoccidioides in the thermodimorphic fungal pathogen clade related to the family Ajellomycetaceae (Ascomycetes), which includes the Blastomyces, Histoplasma, and Emmonsia genera, and with which it shares a common ancestor, Lacazia loboi. PCM can be caused by two species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii [3]. P. brasiliensis has been considered a single species since its discovery, although several studies including molecular and morphological data support the split of P. brasiliensis into two species [3,4]. P. lutzii is composed of a single monophyletic and recombining population so far found in central, southwest, and north Brazil and Ecuador [3–5]. On the other hand, P. brasiliensis contains a complex of at least four different cryptic species (S1, PS2, PS3 and PS4; Figure 1A [6]). P. brasiliensis S1 represents a monophyletic and recombining population widely distributed in South America and has been associated with the majority of cases of PCM detected up until the present time. Strains belonging to P. brasiliensis S1 have previously been recovered from armadillos, soil, and penguin feces [6]. P. brasiliensis PS2 is a paraphyletic and recombining population identified so far only in Brazil and Venezuela [6]. P. brasiliensis PS3 is comprised of a monophyletic and clonal population that has been recovered in humans and armadillos in endemic regions of Colombia [6]. P. brasiliensis PS4 was recently identified and is composed of a monophyletic population of clinical isolates from Venezuela [5,7]. Besides the typical bicorn cocked hat– and barrel-shaped conidia produced by both species, P. lutzii frequently produces elongated rod-shaped conidia, a characteristic feature that may be used for species identification [3]. Because of the difficulties of conidia production in the laboratory and slight morphological differences among species, molecular identification of Paracoccidioides species has become the most common tool of choice. Several molecular markers have already been applied in population studies of the Pararacoccidioides genus, and for multilocus sequencing typing, gp43, arf, b-tub, and hsp70 loci are the best choices for species delineation [4,6].pt_BR
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